Dr. Abdel Moneim Sedki
Professor at animal production research institute, Egypt
Agriculture is responsible for 80% of nitrous oxide emissions from fertilizer decomposition, about 40% of methane from decomposing organic matter, and about 25% from livestock manure and urine as increasing human industrial activity, which led to an increase in the concentration of certain gases in the atmosphere, the presence of gases such as methane, nitrous monoxide, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is a natural presence to preserve the Earth’s heat during winter and at night with their natural concentrations, but by increasing rates Industrial activity There has been an increase in the concentrations of these gases. The occurrence of the so-called “global warming”
Climate change has major impacts on agriculture by affecting ecosystems and affecting crop production, livestock production, and agricultural resources of soil, water and food security. These effects may increase to reach droughts, floods, heat waves and rain distribution. The most fragile ecosystems will suffer many of these changes, causing severe land degradation and food security. Effect of those changes
- Increasing sea water level about 50 cm
- changes will last for decades or centuries
- Increasing rain amount in the world about 5%
- Increasing ambient temperature by 2°C and a reduction of ice areas
- Loss of biodiversity and modification of ecosystem species composition
- · Migration of species, ecosystems, crops and animals to new areas
- Interactions and balances between plant varieties, pests and diseases
- Animal will be under stress reduces its productivity in terms of meat, milk or wool as a result of reducing the feed consumption, which reduces the animal’s productivity.
- It affects the reproductive performance. In males, reduces the quality of semen, and in females it prolongs the period between two births, delays and shortens menstruation, which reduces the number of seasons obtained from milk-producing animals or reduces the number of births from sheep and goats.
- Changes water temperature, fish go down to a lower level, which affects fishing operations
Suggestions for overcoming the effects of climate change
- Assessing the impact of climate changes, the flow of information, and modeling forecasting future climate trends.
- Using nuclear and isotopic techniques to learn and assess the impacts of climate change in support of intensified crop production and conservation of natural resources.
- Good management for crop water and development of water harvesting and conservation methods
- Improving the efficiency of water use in crops, taking into account the costs of water for each crop
- Paying attention to agriculture in coastal areas
- Modification the relationships between crops/animals and pests/diseases including new pests and diseases
- Improving fertilizer quality to minimize the release of nitrogen oxides
- Increasing feed efficiency to improve digestion in ruminants and the use of digestive enzymes
- Reducing the losses in crops ( 25-30%) causing losses large quantities of water ,land, as well as gas emissions
- Availability of clean water in front of the animals at all times to reduce heat stress.
- Paying attention to the ventilation inside animal housing, and providing the animal with a comfortable temperature range
- Providing balanced diets in all its components and mineral elements, such as vitamin C, to reduce heat stress.
- Reducing gas emissions from livestock by creating additives that convert gases into a non-gaseous form
Facing smallholder climate challenges
- Good management of crops, water and land by adjusting planting dates to avoid emergency rises in temperature and to adapt to the lack of rain
- Use of different types of crops and variants
- Developing new types of agricultural animals such as cattle, small ruminants, chickens, ducks, turkeys, rabbits and quails that have the ability to withstand high temperatures.
- Develop varieties of agricultural crops that tolerate heat and salinity
- Devising plant and animal lines that have the ability to withstand possible changes.
- Researchers are directed towards reducing methane emissions from ruminants
- Expanding of greenhouses to provide production inputs and provide suitable environmental conditions for crops and vegetables, as well as the cultivation of tomatoes on the wire
- Production of dwarf hybrids in citrus, grapes and strawberries, because the water and nutritional requirements are less than the normal varieties, and they give the same amount of production and more
- Focusing on the production of dwarf animal hybrids, for example (Vedet) a small-sized chicken hybrid that gives the production of eggs, the weight of the egg is equal to the same product from normal species, but the difference is in providing the conservation needs of the bird and this can be applied to other animals
- implementing selection programs for crops that give intensive production while reducing sugars in them to prevent corruption, so that transport can bear export while reducing losse
FAO supports the Paris Agreement to face Hunger, poverty and climate change combined to reduce rural poverty, sustainable agriculture and strategies that support resource efficiency, conserve and restore biodiversity and natural resources, and combat the effects of climate change. FAO is also already supporting countries to better integrate agricultural sectors into national adaptation plans and to implement their nationally determined contributions. .
The partners should contribute to reducing emissions, whether from the industrialized countries responsible for a large part of those emissions. China is the largest country that contributes to the increase in greenhouse gases, then America, Russia, Canada, then the European Union, due to its intensive industrial activity, and despite that, it is the least affected by climate change. Temperatures are expected to increase by about one degree Celsius by 2030 and two degrees Celsius by the end of the next century, and their effects will be different in different regions. The effects on agriculture, for example, will be more harmful in the tropics than in the temperate regions, and developed countries may benefit more from the potential for increased grain productivity in Canada, northern Europe and some areas in Russia.
Deforestation in tropical and subtropical forest regions has resulted in emerging economies, where 6.2 million square kilometers of the 16 million square kilometers of rainforest that previously covered the land remain. Approximately 55 million hectares of rainforest have been cleared for animal agriculture. More than 3.6 million hectares of indigenous tropical forest were lost in 2018.
The major industrialized countries should adopt green belt cultivation with dense forests in an attempt to create an ecological balance to effectively reduce the impact of global warming, and they must do their part by providing financial support to those affected by their industrial activities and immediately stopping any activities that cause further damage to the climate